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Cataloguing and Indexing
Until 2003, no information on the content of the National Library collection was available. It was therefore vital to undertake a primary and comprehensive inventory. This was done between 2003 and 2006 in the framework of the Rehabilitation Project of the Lebanese National Library.

The inventory's findings revealed 117,749 books, all languages combined (mainly Arabic and French, but also Syriac, English etc.) and 5661 different periodicals, including 2788 periodicals in Arabic characters (in Arabic, Persian, Ottoman, Urdu etc.) and 2873 in non-Arabic characters (Latin, Cyrillic, Korean, etc.).

The book inventory includes basic records and a scanned image of the title page. This database was built on a program especially designed for the Rehabilitation project of the Lebanese National Library.

In 2004, the detailed cataloguing of the monographic collection started on the Lebanese ILMS (Integrated Library Management System) Berytos®.

The inventory of periodicals was performed on Microsoft Excel® before their cataloguing on Berytos®.

Cataloguing of Monographs
The LNL follows the standards of Anglo-American cataloguing rules (AACR2, MARC21, and LCSH), in line with the tradition adopted by Libraries in the Mashreq.

The LNL has however chosen to adopt certain specific procedures:
  • The use of three languages in cataloguing:
Arabic: Works in languages written from right to left are catalogued in Arabic. In addition to Arabic, works in Syriac, Garshuni, and Hebrew... follow this same rule. Their descriptive cataloguing is done in Arabic with the title and statement of responsibility in the characters and language of the book.
French: Descriptive cataloguing of French works is done entirely in French.
English: Descriptive cataloguing of works in other languages (ex. English, Armenian, Portuguese, etc.) is done in English with the title and statement of responsibility in the characters and language of the book.

  • The use of three subject indexing languages according to the language of the book:
Documents written from right to left: subject indexing is done in Arabic and is primarily based on the authority files of the American University of Beirut and of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (Egypt), and on the translation of terms of the Library of Congress Subject Headings.
Documents in French: subject indexing is based on the French Subject Headings Repertoire (RAMEAU) (Répertoire d'Autorité-Matière Encyclopédique et Alphabétique Unifié).
Documents written from left to right (except French): Subject indexing is made in English and is based on the LCSH repertoire (Library of Congress Subject Headings).

Authority Files
The LNL establishes complete authority files in the name of people and communities.

The publisher's name and the place of publication are inputted as they appear on the title page. Links and cross-references are made in a manner allowing the user to easily retrieve all results corresponding to his request.


AUB Press Beyrouth

Authors' names

  • In the absence of comprehensive and authorized directories about Lebanese authors, the Lebanese National Library works on building a complete authority file containing basic biographical information that may serve as a reference tool for researchers and librarians.
  • This authority file deals in particular with the problem of multilingual forms of authors' names. Selected forms of authors' names depend on the language of their works. If the author's works are in more than one language, including Arabic, then the Arabic form of their name is chosen as a main entry (100|a) with all necessary cross-references, and an added entry (700|a) is built in Latin letters.


Naoum Tuéni (1st exemple) Tuéni (2nd exemple) Adonis

The authors Authority Files, created and completed in Arabic by the Lebanese National Library cataloguing team, are now available online on the professional website of OCLC, Virtual International Authority Files, at

Cataloguing of Periodicals
The cataloguing of periodicals (serials accessioning and counting) is also made on the software Berytos and according to Anglo-American rules. Lebanese names are processed similarly to monographs.

Cataloguing of non-print and electronic resources
The policy of cataloguing such resources is currently being developed.

Sources and references of cataloguing
الفهرسة الوصفية : القواعد النظرية و الممارسات العملية / أحمد طالب .- في : نشرة جمعية المكتبات اللبنانية، مج 2، ع 3 (ربيع 1998).

قواعد الفهرسة الأنجلو-أمريكية / أعدت تحت إشراف لجنة التوجيه المشتركة لمراجعة القواعد من جمعية المكتبات الأمريكية... [وآخ.] ؛ تعريب د. محمد فتحي عبد الهادي، د. نبيلة خليفة جمعة، د. يسرية عبد الحليم زايد. — ط. 2، مراجعة 2002، تحديث 2005. — القاهرة : الدار المصرية اللبنانية، 2006. — 2 ج. ؛ 25 سم.

قواعد الفهرسة الأنجلو- أميريكية / تحرير ميشيل جورمان و بول و. ونكلر؛ تعريب محمد فتحي عبد الهادي، نبيلة خليفة جمعة و يسرية عبد الحليم زايد .- الطبعة الثانية مراجعة 1988 .- القاهرة، الدار المصرية اللبنانية، 1994 .- 2 ج.

Anglo-American cataloguing rules / prepared under the direction of the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR, a committee of the American Library Association ... [et al.] . - 2nd ed., 2002 revision .- Chicago, ILL. : American Library Association, c2004 .- 1 v. (loose-leaf).

MARC 21 concise formats / prepared by Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress . - 2001 ed. .- Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service, c2001 .- 1 v. (loose-leaf).

Maxwell's handbook for AACR2 : explaining and illustrating the Anglo-American cataloguing rules through the 2003 update / Robert L. Maxwell . - 4th ed. - Chicago, ILL. : American Library Association, 2004 .- xxii, 519 p. .

Règles de catalogage anglo-américaines / Joint steering committee for revision of AACR ; [élaborées par] the American library association, the Australian committee on cataloguing, the British library,...[et al.] ; réd. par Michael Gorman et Paule W. Winkler ; version française de Rachèle Salvador,...[et al.]. - 2e éd. révisée de 1988. - Montréal [Québec] : ASTED, 1990. - XXXI-925 p. ; 28 cm..

المدخل إلى علم الفهرسة / محمد فتحي عبد الهادي .- القاهرة: دار غريب للطباعة و النشر والتوزيع، 1979 .- 461 ص.

Understanding MARC bibliographic : machine-readable cataloging / [written by Betty Furrie, in conjunction with the Data Base Development Department of the Follett Software Company ; reviewed and edited by the Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress] . - 6th ed. .- Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress, c2000 .- 29 p.

Understanding MARC authority records: machine-readable cataloging/ Developed and written by the Library of Congress, Network Development and MARC Standards Office.- Washington, D.C. : Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress, c2004 .- 28 p.

الفهرسة الموضوعية للمكتبات ومراكز المعلومات / شعبان عبد العزيز خليفة، محمد فتحي عبد الهادي .- القاهرة : العربي للنشر والتوزيع, 1979 .- 141، [1] ص.

قائمة رؤوس الموضوعات العربية الكبرى / شعبان عبد العزيز خليفة، محمد عوض العايدي . - ط. 2.، مزيدة ومنقحة .- القاهرة : المكتبة الأكاديمية, 1994-2000 .- 2 مج.

المكنز الموسع / [electronic resource] مؤسسة عبد الحميد شومان، بلدية دبي، مركز جمعة الماجد للثقافة والتراث =Expanded thesaurus = Thesaurus étendu .- الإصدار 1.0 .- عمّان: مؤسسة شاهين للحاسوب، 2001 .- ¾ 4 إنش

Free-floating subdivisions : an alphabetical index / Library of Congress. Cataloging Distribution Service .- Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service, 1989-

Library of Congress subject headings / prepared by the Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Library Services .- 26th ed. Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service, c2003 .- 5 v.

Classification décimale Dewey et index... [21e édition]... [version française]... [Texte imprimé] / établis par Melvil Dewey. - 21e éd. / éd. par Joan S. Mitchell ; Julianne Beall, Winton E. Matthews, Jr., Gregory R. New, version française / sous la coord. de Raymonde Couture-Lafleur et Louis Cabral ; éd. en collab. par ASTED, Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, Bibliothèque nationale de France... [et al.]. - Montréal : Éd. ASTED, 1998. - 4 vol. ; 24 cm.

Dewey decimal classification and relative index / devised by Melvil Dewey. - ed. 21/ edited by Joan S. Mitchell ... [et al.] .- Amherst NY : Forest Press, 1996 .- 4 v.

الأعلام : قاموس تراجم لأشهر الرجال و النساء من العرب و المستعربين و المستشرقين / تأليف خير الدين الزركلي . - ط. 15.- بيروت : دار العلم للملايين, 2002 .- 8 ج.

مداخل المؤلفين و الأعلام العرب حتى عام 1215هـ = 1800 م / إعداد فكري زكي الجزار .- الرياض : مكتبة الملك فهد الوطنية, 1992-2000 .- 4 ج.

كشف الظنون عن أسامي الكتب و الفنون = / Lexicon bibliographicum et encyclopaedicum حاجي خليفة مصطفى بن عبد الله؛ حرره مع ترجمة إلى اللاتينية غوستاف فلوغل . - بيروت: دار صادر، 1990 .- 8 ج. ؛ 25 سم.

معجم المطبوعات العربية و المعربة: وهو شامل لأسماء الكتب المطبوعة في الأقطار الشرقية و الغربية مع ذكر أسماء مؤلفيها ولمعة من ترجمتهم وذلك من يوم ظهور الطباعة إلى نهاية السنة 1339 هـ. الموافقة لسنة 1919 / يوسف اليان سركيس. - القاهرة : المطبعة السلفية، 1928-1930

Dewey decimal classification and relative index / devised by Melvil Dewey. - ed. 21/ edited by Joan S. Mitchell ... [et al.]. - Amherst NY : Forest Press, 1996. - 4 v.

American University of Beirut:

Bibliotheca Alexandrina:

Library of Congress:

Bibliothèque nationale de France: